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«European Geographical Studies» – international scientific Journal.

E-ISSN 2413-7197

Publication frequency – issued once a year.
Issued from 2014.

1 September 29, 2021


1. Nikolai A. Bityukov
The Features of the Formation of the Hydrological Regime of Mountain Rivers on the Territory of the Sochi Black Sea Region

European Geographical Studies. 2021. 8(1): 3-39.
DOI: 10.13187/egs.2021.1.3CrossRef

The article is devoted to the analysis of the formation of the hydrological regime of the mountain rivers of the Sochi Black Sea region. Due to the peculiarities of the geomorphology and relief of the region, as well as climatic conditions, the main zone of river flow formation is the high-mountain and mid-mountain part of the river basins. Thus, the Mzymta river in the winter period of the hydrological year (from November to March) has a minimum flow, and the average increase in flow is 2 times in the warm season (from April to October). The remaining rivers of the region, due to the predominant rain supply, are characterized by increased runoff in the cold season. There are analyzed the features of the flow formation along the length using the example of two main rivers of the region that have flow observations (the Mzymta and Sochi rivers). From the graphs of changes in water flow rates and total runoff layers, it was found that the greatest water content of rivers falls on the average flow of the river. At the same time, a third of the length of the rivers, which fall on the low-mountain and low-hilly zones, significantly loses flow to the formation of intra-pebble runoff. The most significant in this regard are the values of the runoff on the Sochi River, which give a zero increase in water consumption from the 15-km estuary part of the basin (58 km2 is an increase in the catchment area).

URL: https://egs.cherkasgu.press/journals_n/1643990026.pdf
Number of views: 123      Download in PDF

2. Jelisavka Bulatović, Goran Rajović
Natural and Social Characteristics of the Rural Settlement Vranještica: Geographical Overview

European Geographical Studies. 2021. 8(1): 40-54.
DOI: 10.13187/egs.2021.1.40CrossRef

The rural settlement of Vranještica is located in the northeastern part of Montenegro. It extends in the zone 42 ° 47´ 09 "north latitude and 19 ° 37´ 35" east longitude. Except for the road Andrijevica – Trešnjevik – Mateševo – Kolašin, no other important road intersects or touches this rural settlement. The spatial distribution of the studied space is determined by natural and social characteristics. The relief of Vranještica was formed mainly in the Tertiary. Thus, high mountains were created on one side, and hanging valleys and alluvial plains on the other. The greatest importance in terms of hydrography is represented by Vranještička River and Suvogorska River, which are still waiting for different possibilities of exploitation. With increasing altitude, the productive ability of the pedological composition decreases. Diverse flora and fauna have adapted to climatic, hydrographic and pedological conditions. When it comes to social characteristics, our research records highlighted several evident problems: the first is related to the population, ie its aging; others, that there is a pronounced migration of the population – whose intensive processes and stratification have left behind an unfavorable age structure of the population, which has all negatively affected the socio-economic development of the rural settlement of Vranjestica.

URL: https://egs.cherkasgu.press/journals_n/1643990240.pdf
Number of views: 124      Download in PDF

3. Lali Shavliashvili, Elina Bakradze, Elizbar Elizbarashvili, Ekaterina Shubladze, Gulchina Kuchava
Pollution of Kvemo Kartli Region (Georgia) Soils by Heavy Metals

European Geographical Studies. 2021. 8(1): 55-62.
DOI: 10.13187/egs.2021.1.55CrossRef

The expedition works were held in the territory of the Madneuli enterprise of Kvemo Kartli region in 2020, where brown soils are spread. In order to study the migration of heavy metals in the soil, taking into consideration the wind direction, the samples of soil was taken from 0-100 (0-10, 10-20, 20-40, 40-60, 60-80, 80-100) cm depths, in North from the source of pollution direction (Background) – weak winds direction, 500 m from the enterprise and in the direction of a strong wind in the West and 300 m from the enterprise. In the soil samples were determined general forms of heavy metals Cu, Zn, Pb, Mn, Ni, Cd, Co, As, Ag, Cr, Fe by Plasma-emission spectrometer at ICP-OES. The quality of some heavy metal contamination of soil is revealed in connection with Clark; In contaminated areas, the relatively high concentrations of heavy metals are observed in the upper layers, which are due to the prevailing winds. in the samples taken from the north (background-weakest wind direction) heavy metal content were less. Specifically, from the background and contaminated areas the copper content with 0-10 cm layer 63.22 (1.4) and 324.13 (6.9) mg/kg; 80-100 cm depth decreases copper content and is 22.15 and 156.17 (3.3) mg/kg. Similar situation is in case of zinc. Migration of heavy metals is reduced by increasing depth and approximately 1-5 times exceeding the relevant background importance. In the samples taken from the background areas, some metals (cadmium, arsenic and silver) are high content, which is due to their existence in the soils of the region. At the same time, it is noteworthy that their Clark indicator is low and therefore 0.13; 1.7 and 0.07, which leads to increasing the Ratio concentration of these metals in relation to Clark. As it appears from the data, the soil meets in the categories of copper, zinc and arsenic in the category of slightest pollution (<10) category; In cadmium and silver cases – in average pollution (10-30); And the concentrations of lead, manganese, nickel, cobalt and chromium do not exceed Clark. Correlation links are investigated between the concentrations of different metals in the upper layers of the soil. The correlation coefficient is the largest between Cu and Zn concentrations. It is positive and equals 0.77, determination Coefficient (R2) is 0.58 among the Cu-Zn concentrations. Correlation coefficient between Cu and Co concentrations are 0,62, determination coefficient of Cu-Co concentrations is 0.38. In all other cases the correlation coefficient is negligible and can be neglected.

URL: https://egs.cherkasgu.press/journals_n/1643990340.pdf
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4. Nana Berdzenishvili
Ecological Condition of the Rioni River

European Geographical Studies. 2021. 8(1): 63-67.
DOI: 10.13187/egs.2021.1.63CrossRef

Water resources are one of the most important natural resources of Georgia. Rioni River Imereti is a main artery of water. It is a left tributary of the largest river Imereti hills – Kvirila, which is connected with Dzirula Chherimeloy, and the right side connects with the waters of the Rioni Tskhenistskali. Rioni water used in production, and communal services the population. On both sides of the Rioni are large industrial facilities that degrade water quality. The problem of water resources protection Imereti and rational use of it, on the one hand has created increasing demand for water by industry, and on the other side of reservoirs pollution. Water pollution in the Rioni begins with the origins. From traditional polluting facilities should be noted Kvaisskoe, Tutiyskoe businesses, a lot of Oni and Ambrolauri businesses that poured on the raw water in the Rioni. And the most polluted river in the territory of Kutaisi.

URL: https://egs.cherkasgu.press/journals_n/1647274261.pdf
Number of views: 83      Download in PDF

full number
URL: https://egs.cherkasgu.press/journals_n/1647274321.pdf
Number of views: 114      Download in PDF

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